Guillermo Alberto Perez Guillen
Published © CC BY

PID Battery Charger Controller

Test and comparison of two PWM methods, to control the battery charge of a "Night Light Control:" 1) Sine function; and 2) PID controller.

AdvancedFull instructions providedOver 8 days595

Things used in this project

Hardware components

STM32F407G-DISC1
×1
CoolMOS C7 Gold SJ MOSFET
Infineon CoolMOS C7 Gold SJ MOSFET
×1
J525 P-Channel Mosfet (Toshiba)
×1
Linear Regulator with Adjustable Output
Linear Regulator with Adjustable Output
×1
BC547 - NPN Transistor
×3
BD135 - NPN Transistor
×2
Photo resistor
Photo resistor
×1
40106 (Trigger Schmitt)
×1
1N4007 – High Voltage, High Current Rated Diode
1N4007 – High Voltage, High Current Rated Diode
×2
Schottky diode
×1
Rechargeable Battery 5-6 Volts
×1
Capacitor 100 µF
Capacitor 100 µF
×1
Capacitor .1 uF
×1
Potentiometer 5k
×1
Resistor 100k ohm
Resistor 100k ohm
×1
Resistor 10k ohm
Resistor 10k ohm
×6
Resistor 4k7
×2
Resistor 1k ohm
Resistor 1k ohm
×2
Resistor 3k3
×1
Resistor 240 ohm
×1
Zener diode - 11v
×1
Fuse (5A)
×2

Software apps and online services

GNAT Community
AdaCore GNAT Community
GNAT Pro
AdaCore GNAT Pro
Circuit Maker
CircuitMaker by Altium Circuit Maker
AdaCore Ada Drivers Library
PID Example By Lowell Cady

Hand tools and fabrication machines

Mastech MS8217 Autorange Digital Multimeter
Digilent Mastech MS8217 Autorange Digital Multimeter
Microchip PICkit 2
Soldering iron (generic)
Soldering iron (generic)
Switching Power Supply - 330W
Breadboard

Story

Read more

Custom parts and enclosures

Project repository: "Circuit Board Designs of Battery Charger With Night Light Control"

This repository contains the: "Circuit Board Designs of a Battery Charger With Night Light Control". Programming Language: CircuitMaker. Files: BOM, Gerber, NC Drill and PDF files. (This repository corresponds to step 8)

Schematics

Schematic Diagram

Block diagram of the system

Circuit Diagram

Electric Diagram of the System

Code

battery_charger.gpr

ADA
GNAT Project file
Generating a control PWM signal from a Sine function
(This code corresponds to step 6)
with "../../../../../boards/stm32f407_discovery/stm32f407_discovery_full.gpr";

project Battery_Charger extends "../../../../../examples/shared/common/common.gpr" is

   for Languages use ("Ada");
   for Main use ("battery_charger.adb");
   for Source_Dirs use ("src");
   for Object_Dir use "obj/" & STM32F407_Discovery_Full.Build;
   for Runtime ("Ada") use STM32F407_Discovery_Full'Runtime("Ada");
   for Create_Missing_Dirs use "true";

   package Builder is
      for Global_Configuration_Pragmas use "gnat.adc";
   end Builder;

   package Compiler renames STM32F407_Discovery_Full.Compiler;

end Battery_Charger;

battery_charger.adb

ADA
Ada body file
Generating a control PWM signal from a Sine function
(This code corresponds to step 6)
-- BATTERY CHARGER POWERED AdaCore
--  Author: GUILLERMO ALBERTO PEREZ GUILLEN
--  12/29/2018


--  This demonstration illustrates the use of:
--  1) PWM signal to control a battery charger on PD15, and
--  2) We can turn on a light lamp on PD12,
--  3) We use a night light control on PA1
--  4) We can measure the battery voltage on PA0
--  5) We used the 4 LEDS as indication on system condition
--  We used  an abstract data type PWM_Modulator to control the power to
--  the LED via pulse-width-modulation.

with Last_Chance_Handler;  pragma Unreferenced (Last_Chance_Handler);

with STM32.Board;  use STM32.Board;
with STM32.Device; use STM32.Device;
with STM32.PWM;    use STM32.PWM;
with STM32.Timers; use STM32.Timers;

with HAL;          use HAL; --adc library
with STM32.ADC;    use STM32.ADC; --adc library
with STM32.GPIO;   use STM32.GPIO; --adc library

with Ada.Real_Time;  use Ada.Real_Time; --adc library

with STM32.User_Button; -- btn library


procedure Battery_Charger is

   Converter     : Analog_To_Digital_Converter renames ADC_1; --adc instruction
   Input_Channel : constant Analog_Input_Channel := 1; --adc instruction, channel 1
   Input1         : constant GPIO_Point := PA1; --adc instruction, PA1 port

   All_Regular_Conversions : constant Regular_Channel_Conversions :=
          (1 => (Channel => Input_Channel, Sample_Time => Sample_144_Cycles)); --adc instruction

   Raw : UInt32 := 0; --adc instruction

   Successful : Boolean; --adc instruction

   Selected_Timer : STM32.Timers.Timer renames Timer_4;
   --  NOT arbitrary! We drive the on-board LEDs that are tied to the channels
   --  of Timer_4 on some boards. Not all boards have this association. If you
   --  use a different board, select a GPIO point connected to your selected
   --  timer and drive that instead.

   Timer_AF : constant STM32.GPIO_Alternate_Function := GPIO_AF_TIM4_2;
   --  Note that this value MUST match the corresponding timer selected!

   Output_Channel : constant Timer_Channel := Channel_4; -- Blue LED is selected
   --  The LED driven by this example is determined by the channel selected.
   --  That is so because each channel of Timer_4 is connected to a specific
   --  LED in the alternate function configuration on this board. We will
   --  initialize all of the LEDs to be in the AF mode. The
   --  particular channel selected is completely arbitrary, as long as the
   --  selected GPIO port/pin for the LED matches the selected channel.

   LED_For : constant array (Timer_Channel) of User_LED :=
               (Channel_1 => Green_LED,
                Channel_2 => Orange_LED,
                Channel_3 => Red_LED,
                Channel_4 => Blue_LED);

   Requested_Frequency : constant Hertz := 30_000;  -- PWM frequency

   Power_Control : PWM_Modulator;

   --  The SFP run-time library for these boards is intended for certified
   --  environments and so doesn't contain the full set of facilities defined
   --  by the Ada language.
   function Sine (Input : Long_Float) return Long_Float;

   --  In this demonstration we roll our own approximation to the sine function
   --  so that it doesn't matter which runtime library is used.

   function Sine (Input : Long_Float) return Long_Float is
      Pi : constant Long_Float := 3.14159_26535_89793_23846;
      X  : constant Long_Float := Long_Float'Remainder (Input, Pi * 2.0);
      B  : constant Long_Float := 4.0 / Pi;
      C  : constant Long_Float := (-4.0) / (Pi * Pi);
      Y  : constant Long_Float := B * X + C * X * abs (X);
      P  : constant Long_Float := 0.225;
   begin
      return P * (Y * abs (Y) - Y) + Y;
   end Sine;

   --  We use the sine function to drive the power applied to the LED, thereby
   --  making the LED increase and decrease in brightness. We attach the timer
   --  to the LED and then control how much power is supplied by changing the
   --  value of the timer's output compare register. The sine function drives
   --  that value, thus the waxing/waning effect.

   procedure Configure_Analog_Input is --adc instruction
   begin -- adc
      Enable_Clock (Input1); --adc instruction
      Configure_IO (Input1, (Mode => Mode_Analog, Resistors => Floating)); -- adc instruction
   end Configure_Analog_Input; --adc instruction

begin

   Initialize_LEDs; --adc instruction

   Configure_Analog_Input; --adc instruction

   Enable_Clock (Converter); --adc instruction

   Reset_All_ADC_Units; --adc instruction

   Configure_Common_Properties --adc instruction
     (Mode           => Independent, --adc instruction
      Prescalar      => PCLK2_Div_2, --adc instruction
      DMA_Mode       => Disabled, --adc instruction
      Sampling_Delay => Sampling_Delay_5_Cycles); --adc instruction

   Configure_Unit --adc instruction
     (Converter, --adc instruction
      Resolution => ADC_Resolution_12_Bits, --adc instruction
      Alignment  => Right_Aligned); --adc instruction

   Configure_Regular_Conversions --adc instruction
     (Converter, --adc instruction
      Continuous  => False, --adc instruction
      Trigger     => Software_Triggered, --adc instruction
      Enable_EOC  => True, --adc instruction
      Conversions => All_Regular_Conversions); --adc instruction

   Enable (Converter); --adc instruction

   Configure_PWM_Timer (Selected_Timer'Access, Requested_Frequency);

   Power_Control.Attach_PWM_Channel
     (Selected_Timer'Access,
      Output_Channel,
      LED_For (Output_Channel),
      Timer_AF);

   Power_Control.Enable_Output;

   declare
      Arg       : Long_Float := 0.0;
      Value     : Percentage;

   begin
         STM32.User_Button.Initialize; -- btn instruction
      loop
         Start_Conversion (Converter); --adc instruction
         Poll_For_Status (Converter, Regular_Channel_Conversion_Complete, Successful); --adc instruction
         Raw := UInt32 (Conversion_Value (Converter)); -- reading PA0
         Arg := Long_Float((Raw*5)/4095); -- 5 is an experimental value
         Value := Percentage (50.0 * (1.0 + Sine (Arg))); -- duty cycle value
         Power_Control.Set_Duty_Cycle (Value); -- PWM signal

         if Raw < 2457 then -- if the battery < 4 volts approx
            Red_LED.Set; -- Red LED os ON
            Green_LED.Clear; -- Green LED is OFF
            Orange_LED.Clear; -- Orange LED is OFF
            delay until Clock + Milliseconds (2000); -- slow it down to ease reading
         elsif Raw >= 3276 then -- If the battery > 5,4 volts approx
            Red_LED.Clear; -- Red LED is OFF
            Orange_LED.Set; -- Orange LED is OFF
         elsif STM32.User_Button.Has_Been_Pressed then -- If PA0 is ON
            Green_LED.Set; -- Green LED is ON
         else -- If battery is between: 4 to 5,4 volts approx
            Orange_LED.Set; -- Orange LED is ON
            Red_LED.Set; -- Red LED is ON
         end if;
         delay until Clock + Milliseconds (100); -- slow it down to ease reading
      end loop;
   end;

end Battery_Charger;

pid_battery_charger.gpr

ADA
GNAT project file
Generating a control PWM signal from a PID controller
(This code corresponds to step 7)
with "../../../../../boards/stm32f407_discovery/stm32f407_discovery_full.gpr";

project Pid_Battery_Charger extends "../../../../../examples/shared/common/common.gpr" is

	for Languages use ("Ada");
    for Main use ("pid_battery_charger.adb");
    for Source_Dirs use ("src");
    for Object_Dir use "obj/" & STM32F407_Discovery_Full.Build;
    for Runtime ("Ada") use STM32F407_Discovery_Full'Runtime("Ada");
    for Create_Missing_Dirs use "true";

    package Builder is
       for Global_Configuration_Pragmas use "gnat.adc";
    end Builder;

    package Compiler renames STM32F407_Discovery_Full.Compiler;

end Pid_Battery_Charger;

pid_battery_charger.adb

ADA
Ada body file
Generating a control PWM signal from a PID controller
(This code corresponds to step 7)
--  BATTERY CHARGER
--  Author GUILLERMO ALBERTO PEREZ GUILLEN
--  February 7, 2019
--  This demonstration illustrates the use of:
--  1) PWM PID signal to control a BATTERY CHARGER on PD15, 

with Last_Chance_Handler;  pragma Unreferenced (Last_Chance_Handler);

with STM32.Board;  use STM32.Board;
with STM32.Device; use STM32.Device;
with STM32.PWM;    use STM32.PWM;
with STM32.Timers; use STM32.Timers;

with HAL;          use HAL; --adc library
with STM32.ADC;    use STM32.ADC; --adc library
with STM32.GPIO;   use STM32.GPIO; --adc library

with Ada.Real_Time;  use Ada.Real_Time; --adc library

with STM32.User_Button; -- btn library

procedure Pid_Battery_Charger is

   Converter     : Analog_To_Digital_Converter renames ADC_1; --adc instruction
   Input_Channel : constant Analog_Input_Channel := 1; --adc instruction, channel 1
   Input1         : constant GPIO_Point := PA1; --adc instruction, PA1 port

   All_Regular_Conversions : constant Regular_Channel_Conversions :=
          (1 => (Channel => Input_Channel, Sample_Time => Sample_144_Cycles)); --adc instruction

   Raw : UInt32 := 0; --adc instruction

   Successful : Boolean; --adc instruction

   Selected_Timer : STM32.Timers.Timer renames Timer_4;
   --  NOT arbitrary! We drive the on-board LEDs that are tied to the channels
   --  of Timer_4 on some boards. Not all boards have this association. If you
   --  use a different board, select a GPIO point connected to your selected
   --  timer and drive that instead.

   Timer_AF : constant STM32.GPIO_Alternate_Function := GPIO_AF_TIM4_2;
   --  Note that this value MUST match the corresponding timer selected!

   Output_Channel : constant Timer_Channel := Channel_4; -- Blue LED is selected
   --  The LED driven by this example is determined by the channel selected.
   --  That is so because each channel of Timer_4 is connected to a specific
   --  LED in the alternate function configuration on this board. We will
   --  initialize all of the LEDs to be in the AF mode. The
   --  particular channel selected is completely arbitrary, as long as the
   --  selected GPIO port/pin for the LED matches the selected channel.

   LED_For : constant array (Timer_Channel) of User_LED :=
               (Channel_1 => Green_LED,
                Channel_2 => Orange_LED,
                Channel_3 => Red_LED,
                Channel_4 => Blue_LED);

   Requested_Frequency : constant Hertz := 30_000;  -- PWM frequency

   Power_Control : PWM_Modulator;

   procedure Configure_Analog_Input is --adc instruction
   begin -- adc
      Enable_Clock (Input1); --adc instruction
      Configure_IO (Input1, (Mode => Mode_Analog, Resistors => Floating)); -- adc instruction
   end Configure_Analog_Input; --adc instruction

begin

   Initialize_LEDs; --adc instruction

   Configure_Analog_Input; --adc instruction

   Enable_Clock (Converter); --adc instruction

   Reset_All_ADC_Units; --adc instruction

   Configure_Common_Properties --adc instruction
     (Mode           => Independent, --adc instruction
      Prescalar      => PCLK2_Div_2, --adc instruction
      DMA_Mode       => Disabled, --adc instruction
      Sampling_Delay => Sampling_Delay_5_Cycles); --adc instruction

   Configure_Unit --adc instruction
     (Converter, --adc instruction
      Resolution => ADC_Resolution_12_Bits, --adc instruction
      Alignment  => Right_Aligned); --adc instruction

   Configure_Regular_Conversions --adc instruction
     (Converter, --adc instruction
      Continuous  => False, --adc instruction
      Trigger     => Software_Triggered, --adc instruction
      Enable_EOC  => True, --adc instruction
      Conversions => All_Regular_Conversions); --adc instruction

   Enable (Converter); --adc instruction

   Configure_PWM_Timer (Selected_Timer'Access, Requested_Frequency);

   Power_Control.Attach_PWM_Channel
     (Selected_Timer'Access,
      Output_Channel,
      LED_For (Output_Channel),
      Timer_AF);

   Power_Control.Enable_Output;

   declare
      Value     : Percentage;
      Raw1      : Long_Float;
      setpoint  : constant := 3003.0; -- VR5 = 2.2 volts / V Battery = 4.95 volts 
      error     : Long_Float := 0.0;
      output    : Long_Float;
      integral  : Long_Float := 0.0;
      dt        : constant := 0.0005;
      Kp        : constant := 0.025;
      Ki        : constant := 0.025;

   begin
         STM32.User_Button.Initialize; -- btn instruction
      loop
         Start_Conversion (Converter); --adc instruction
         Poll_For_Status (Converter, Regular_Channel_Conversion_Complete, Successful); --adc instruction
         Raw := UInt32 (Conversion_Value (Converter)); -- reading PA1
         Raw1 := Long_Float(Raw * 1);
         error := (setpoint - Raw1);
         integral := (integral + (error*dt));
         output := ((Kp*error) + (Ki*integral));
         Value := Percentage (output); -- duty cycle value
                       
         if Value < 10 then -- if the duty cycle < 10%
            Power_Control.Set_Duty_Cycle (10);
            Red_LED.Set; -- Red LED os ON
            Green_LED.Clear; -- Green LED is OFF
            Orange_LED.Clear; -- Orange LED is OFF
            delay until Clock + Milliseconds (500); -- slow it down to ease reading                                    
         elsif Value >= 90 then -- If the duty cycle > 90%
            Power_Control.Set_Duty_Cycle (90);
            Red_LED.Clear; -- Red LED is OFF
            Orange_LED.Set; -- Orange LED is OFF
         elsif STM32.User_Button.Has_Been_Pressed then -- If PA0 is ON
            Green_LED.Set; -- Green LED is ON
         else -- If the duty cycle is from: 10 - 90 %
            Power_Control.Set_Duty_Cycle (Value); -- PWM signal
            Orange_LED.Set; -- Orange LED is ON
            Red_LED.Set; -- Red LED is ON
         end if;
         delay until Clock + Milliseconds (10); -- slow it down to ease reading
      end loop;
   end;   
   
end Pid_Battery_Charger;

Project repository: "Battery Charger With Night Light Control"

This repository contains the project codes of: Generating a control PWM signal from a Sine function (This repository corresponds to step 6)

Project repository: "PID Battery Charger Controller"

This repository contains the project codes of: Generating a control PWM signal from a PID controller (This repository corresponds to step 7)

Credits

Guillermo Alberto Perez Guillen

Guillermo Alberto Perez Guillen

27 projects • 27 followers
Communications and Electronics Engineering, and Writer... "Don´t Expect Different Results If Your Habits Are The Same" A Einstein

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